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The Reverse Osmosis process
- Osmosis is a natural process involving the flow of a concentrated solution across a semi-permeable membrane barrier.
- Consider a tank of pure water with a semi-permeable membrane dividing it into two sides. Pure water in contact with both sides of an ideal semi-permeable membrane at equal pressure and temperature has no net flow across the membrane because the chemical potential is equal on both sides.
- If a soluble salt is added on one side, the chemical potential of this salt solution is reduced. Osmotic flow from the pure water side across the membrane to the salt solution side will occur until the equilibrium of chemical potential is restored.
- In scientific terms, the two sides of the tank have a difference in their "chemical potentials," and the solution equalizes, by osmosis, its chemical potential throughout the system. Equilibrium occurs when the hydrostatic pressure differential resulting from the volume changes on both sides is equal to the osmotic pressure.
- The osmotic pressure is a solution property proportional to the salt concentration and independent of the membrane. The water moves to the salty side of the membrane until equilibrium is achieved.
- Additional pressure will raise the chemical potential of the water in the salt solution and cause a solvent flow to the pure waterside, because it now has a lower chemical potential. This phenomenon is called Reverse Osmosis.